Property owners who want to have an outdoor pool are faced with the problem of flooding and groundwater runoff. The lack of effective drainage leads to the failure of the pipeline and all related equipment, the destruction of the coating, and the walls of the pool bowl. Accumulated moisture that turns into ice can destroy even strong concrete. Therefore, the possible life span of the pool itself depends on the efficiency of the installed pool drainage system, therefore, an important aspect is the installation of an effective catch basin drain so that excess water does not damage the decorative and functional elements of the pool.
Purpose of the pool drainage system
Drainage removes excess moisture that accumulates on the surface of the pool due to heavy rains, spring floods, and the location of the object near groundwater or nearby streams. For the pool to last a long time and preserve the appearance of the place where the water is, excess moisture must be removed. Drainage systems are used to solve this problem. Drainage is the removal of excess water from the soil surface or below it. The competent calculation, as well as the correct installation of structural elements, will prevent the simultaneous occurrence of several problems:
Excess moisture does not accumulate on the surface, so there will be no puddles, dirt, or stains on the surface of the pool. There will be fewer mosquitoes and other insects, and the pool itself will look clean and tidy.
The foundation is protected from the effects of excessive moisture, which significantly extends its service life, prevents shifting and erosion of the foundation, and protects against flooding and high humidity.
The roots of berry bushes and trees do not rot from excess moisture, plants do not die and get sick less.
Work and rest near the pool will bring more joy since you will not have to get to it through water and mud.
When is it necessary to install a drainage system?
The construction of the drainage system for the effective removal of groundwater should begin before the construction of the pool shell. Otherwise, you will have to dismantle the pool systems to install drain pipes and waste water tanks. Active use of pool trench drain systems is necessary on loamy soils and chernozems. At the same time, the walls and bottom of the pool must be waterproof. Sandy and stony soils have high water permeability and independently drain groundwater. They are located at a great depth, so the bowl of the pool itself can be made of any material.
One of the main elements of landscape design is the creation of a drainage system that allows you to protect your site from many troubles. The first signs of the need to arrange a drainage system are seasonal flooding, slow retention of moisture after rain, grass growth, and spontaneous growth of aquatic vegetation. Timely installation of a drainage system will protect your site from many problems associated with high humidity, such as flooding of the territory and death of plants, the drainage solution also protects your house from flooding and deformation of the foundation. Drainage systems differ in the depth of their location and the structure of the elements (open and closed type).
Factors such as site topography, the elevation of the water table, soil composition and nature, and the various types of nearby buildings and their area affect the selection and location of the type of drainage suitable for a particular site.
According to the location of the main elements of the drainage system, they are divided into deep and surface. Surface drainage systems are used to remove meltwater and precipitation from the soil surface. Surface drainage, as a rule, is a structure consisting of rain collectors, moisture drainage channels (ditches), and waterfalls (special tanks or storm drains). Surface drainage, as a rule, is installed pointwise along the perimeter of the site or its structures, also where local water drainage is required. Deep drainage systems are used to lower the water table and remove excess moisture from the property line.
Benefits of Deep Drainage Systems
Closed deep drainage is a system of pipes buried at an optimal depth with perforated walls, through which water enters and is then discharged into channels, wells, tanks, or special containers.
Installing deep drainage systems is the most effective way to protect the foundation of your house from erosion and deformation, as well as protect the root system of plants from destruction. In addition, in the case of unstable clay soils saturated with a large amount of water, the installation of deep drainage is the best, and sometimes the only correct solution to normalize the air-water balance and improve the health of the soil.
Creating a drainage system for a pool is a serious complex of construction work and equipment design, which is best performed with the help of qualified specialists in this field. Choosing the optimal type of drainage system and its high-quality installation requires high-precision calculations, as well as taking into account many geological parameters of the terrain and other features of the area where the pool is located.
At the stage of designing and drawing up a drainage network plan, specialists calculate the groundwater level, the degree of slope, the construction of ditches, the order of their location, the optimal depth of immersion of the components of the drainage system, and other important data. Even minor miscalculations or missing parameters in a certain area can increase the water balance of the soil and create several new problems. It is important to create a reliable and high-quality drainage system for excess water from the pool, which perfectly meets all the requirements and features of your landscape.
Possible ways of drainage
Depending on the type of soil and the depth of groundwater, there are several options for organizing the drainage system, which is actively used for the pool:
Surface drainage system. Water enters the prepared pits and is pumped out by special pumps.
Trench drainage system. In this case, the use of pipes and pumps is not expected. Drainage around the pool is designed with special ditches filled with rubble from coarse-grained sand. Materials from different fractions are filled in several layers. Peat is laid to protect the filling mixture from contamination.
Tubular type of drainage. For the functioning of this type of drainage, perforated polymer pipes are used, which are laid below the freezing point of the soil. To collect water, special holes are drilled along the drain line.
Use of special filters. Pipes with filters are specially connected to a vacuum pump that pumps water. To increase the depth of pool drainage, multi-layer systems supplemented with special lifts are actively used, the use of which ensures effective drainage at a depth of up to 5 meters under the pool.
How and where exactly is the water from the pool drained?
When planning the drainage system, a place for collecting groundwater should be provided. One of 4 possible effective options is used:
Water storage system for places with a large difference in humidity.
Special structures that are buried or have access to the surface. Moisture that enters the well is gradually absorbed by the soil.
Artificial reservoir. An expensive tool that can further improve the landscape of the site.
Central drainage system. If your area has such a system, the pool drain should be routed there.
In very wet places, the water collected by drainage does not mix with the soil.
How to make drainage under the pool?
A good arrangement of drainage requires significant physical and material costs. However, having a pool drainage system installed pays for itself in a short time by automatically draining groundwater and extending the life of your pool. The simplest drainage consists of one or more storage wells, from which water is pumped into a special container or ditch.
Work should begin with digging trenches, which should be done at intervals of 3-5 meters. This distance decreases on heavy soils and increases on light ones.
The bottom of the trenches should be inclined to the drainage pit to ensure the self-drainage of water. To check the correctness of the construction, you need to use a level.
A sand-gravel mixture is poured at the bottom of the trench and perforated drainage pipes wrapped with geotextile are laid. The material prevents clogging of the drain system. After laying the pipes, they are covered with gravel and sand, which prevents their direct contact with the ground.
Before carrying out drainage under the pool, you need to take care of the groundwater level. If they are close to the surface, they cannot perform their drainage function. In this case, you need to raise the surface of the site and cover it with soil. This activity requires large capital investments. The pool must have full moisture protection. To do this, it is protected by a layer of strong polyethylene film laid on the surface of the pit. During the operation of the pool, it is important to carefully analyze that the water level in the drainage well does not rise above the groundwater level.